Gemstones of the Good Dhamma

An Anthology of Verses
from the Pali Scriptures

Compiled and translated by

Ven. S. Dhammika

Buddhist Publication Society
Kandy • Sri Lanka

The Wheel Publication No. 342/344

First edition: 1987

This digital edition: 2010

Copyright © 1987 Buddhist Publication Society

BPS Online Edition © (2010)

Digital Transcription Source: BPS Transcription Project

For free distribution. This work may be republished, reformatted, reprinted and redistributed in any medium. However, any such republication and redistribution is to be made available to the public on a free and unrestricted basis, and translations and other derivative works are to be clearly marked as such.


About the Author

Gemstones of the Good Dhamma

The Defilements
The Disciple
The Training
Oneself and Others
Love I
Love II
The Buddha



The discourses of the Buddha and his direct disciples have been collected together into a huge body of literature known as the Sutta Piṭaka. Made up of both prose and verse, much of this literature is little known to the average Buddhist because of its great size and also because in both style and content it is highly philosophical. One selection of this literature is, however, very well known. It is the Dhammapada, a collection of four hundred and twenty-three verses on various aspects of the Buddha’s teachings. The Dhammapada’s convenient size, pithy wisdom and, at times, great beauty has made it by far the most popular book in the Sutta Pitaka.

However, many other verses of equal relevance and appeal are to be found scattered throughout the Sutta Pitaka, which remain virtually unknown. I thought it useful, therefore, to collect some of these verses, arrange them according to subject, and present them in such a way that they may enrich the faith and deepen the understanding of those who read them. Most of the verses are the words of the Buddha himself; a lesser number is attributed to his enlightened disciples. But even these reflect the spirit of the Buddha’s Dhamma, for it is said: “That which is well spoken is the word of the Buddha.” (A IV 164).

This small work is dedicated to my good friend, Miss Constance Sandham. May this Gemstones of the Good Dhamma illuminate the path so that all beings may attain Nibbāna!

About the Author

Venerable S. Dhammika was born in Australia and developed an interest in Buddhism in his early teens. At the age of twenty-two he went to India and was ordained as a Buddhist monk under the Ven. M. Saṅgharatana Mahāthera. He later moved to Sri Lanka where he taught meditation for several years in the Kandy district. He now lives and teaches in Singapore.

Gemstones of the Good Dhamma

  1. Āyācanā Request
1. Namo te purisājañña
namo te purisuttama
sadevakasmiṃ lokasmiṃ
natthi te paṭipuggalo
Homage to you so nobly bred.
Homage to you amongst men supreme.
Peerless are you in all the world.
May all worship be given to you.
2. Namo te buddha vīratthu
vippamuttosi sabbadhi
tassa me saraṇaṃ bhava
Homage to you, Enlightened Hero,
you who are completely free.
I have fallen into great distress,
be my refuge and my shelter.
3. Passāmahaṃ devamanussaloke
akiñcanaṃ brāhmaṇaṃiriyamānaṃ
taṃ taṃ namassāmi samantacakkhu
pamuñca maṃ sakka kathaṃkathāhi
In the world of gods and men, I see
this brahmin true, this simple man.
You I worship, All-Seeing One,
so free me, Sakka, [1] from my doubts.
4. Anusāsa brahme karuṇāyamāno
vivekadhammaṃ yaṃahaṃ vijaññaṃ
yathāhaṃ ākāsova abyāpajjamāno
idheva santo asito careyyaṃ
O Brahma, [2] out of compassion teach me
the lofty Dhamma so I may understand,
and relying on nothing else,
may live unclouded like the sky.
5. Ye ca saṅkhātadhammāse
ye ca sekhā puthū idha
tesaṃ me nipako iriyaṃ
puṭṭho pabrūhi mārisa
Those who have understood the Dhamma
and those who train themselves in it:
O wise and truly gracious one,
tell me how they live their lives.
  2. Dhammavagga Dhamma
6. Kittayissāmi te dhammaṃ
diṭṭhe dhamme anītihaṃ
yaṃ viditvā sato caraṃ
tare loke visattikaṃ
I will teach you a Dhamma,
not hearsay but to be directly seen.
Whoever discovers it and knows it
and lives by it with mindfulness,
will transcend craving for the world.
7. Suvijāno bhavaṃ hoti
suvijāno parābhavo
Dhammakāmo bhavaṃ hoti
dhammadessī parābhavo
Prosperity in life is plain,
decline in life is also plain:
one who loves the Dhamma prospers,
one who hates the Dhamma declines.
8. Yo ca dhammamabhiññāya
dhammamaññāya paṇḍito
rahadova nivāte ca
anejo vūpasammati
Thoroughly understanding the Dhamma
and freed from longing through insight,
the wise one rid of all desire
is calm as a pool unstirred by wind.
9. Yesaṃ dhammā asammuṭṭhā
paravādesu na nīyare
te sambuddhā sammadaññā
caranti visame sama
Those to whom the Dhamma is clear
are not led into other doctrines;
perfectly enlightened with perfect knowledge,
they walk evenly over the uneven.
10. Na udakena sucī hotī
bahvettha nhāyatī jano
yamhi saccañca dhammo ca
so sucī so ca brāhmaṇo
Not by water is one made pure
though many people may here bathe, [3]
but one in whom there is truth and Dhamma,
he is pure, he is a brahmin.
11. Ujuko nāma so maggo
abhayā nāma sā disā
ratho akūjano nāma
dhammacakkehi saṃyuto
The path is called "straight,"
"without fear" is the destination;
the carriage is called "silent"
and its wheels are right effort.
12. Hirī tassa apālambo
satyassa parivāraṇaṃ
dhammāhaṃ sārathiṃ brūmi
Conscience is the rails and
mindfulness the upholstery,
Dhamma is the driver and
right view runs ahead of it.
13. Yassa etādisaṃ yānaṃ
itthiyā purisassa vā
sa ve etena yānena
nibbānasseva santike
And whether it be a woman,
or whether it be a man,
whoever travels by this carriage
shall draw close to Nibbāna.
14. Ye keci osadhā loke
vijjanti vividhā bahū
dhammosadhasamaṃ natthi
etaṃ pivatha bhikkhavo
Of all the medicines in the world,
manifold and various,
there is none like the medicine of Dhamma:
therefore, O monks, drink of this.
15. Dhammosadhaṃ pivitvāna
ajarāmaraṇā siyuṃ
bhāvayitvā ca passitvā
nibbutā upadhikkhaye
Having drunk this Dhamma medicine,
you will be ageless and beyond death;
having developed and seen the truth,
you will be quenched, free from craving.
  3. Kilesavagga The Defilements
16. Kāmayogena saṃyuttā
bhavayogena cūbhayaṃ
diṭṭhiyogena saṃyuttā
avijjāya purakkhatā
sattā gacchanti saṃsāraṃ
Bound by desire, tied to becoming,
fettered tightly by false opinions,
yoked to ignorance, whirled about:
thus beings wander through saṃsāra,
dying only to be born again.
17. Na hiraññasuvaṇṇena
parikkhīyanti āsavā
amittā vadhakā kāmā
sapattā sallabandhanā
Neither gold nor minted coins
can make the defilements disappear.
Sense desires are enemies and killers,
hostile darts, rigid bonds.
18. Ummādanā ullapanā
kāmā cittapamaddino
sattānaṃ saṅkilesāya
khippaṃ mārena oḍḍitaṃ
Desire is agitating and deceiving,
a source of mental pain,
a net cast out by Māra [4]
to entangle and defile beings.
19. Pabbatassa suvaṇṇassa
jātarūpassa kevalo
dvittāva nālaṃekassa
iti vidvā samañcare
Were there a mountain all made of gold,
doubled that would not be enough
to satisfy a single man:
know this and live accordingly.
20. Kodhano dubbaṇṇo hoti
atho dukkhaṃpi seti so
atho atthaṃ gahetvāna
anatthaṃ adhipajjati
tato kāyena vācāya.
vadhaṃ katvāna kodhano
How ugly is the angry man!
His sleep is without comfort;
despite his wealth he is always poor.
Filled with anger as he is, he wounds
by acts of body and speech.
21. Hantā labhati hantāraṃ
Jetāraṃ labhate jayaṃ
akkosako ca akkosaṃ
rosetārañca rosako
atha kammavivaṭṭena
so vilutto viluppati
One who kills gets killed,
one who conquers gets conquered,
one who reviles gets reviled.
Thus as a result of his own actions
the spoiler will in turn be spoiled.
22. Natthañño ekadhammopi
yeneva nivutā pajā
saṃsaranti ahorattaṃ
yathā mohena āvutā
There is no other single thing
by which the human race is hindered,
by which it wanders day and night,
so much as by this: delusion.
23. Imesu kira sajjanti
eke samaṇabrāhmaṇā
viggayha naṃ vivadanti
janā ekaṅgadassino
How they cling and how they wrangle,
yet claim to be recluses and brahmins.
Quarrelling and clinging to their opinions,
they see only one side of things.
24. Ye ca rattindivā yuttā
te nibbāpenti rāgaggiṃ
niccaṃ asubhasaññino
Those who apply themselves day and night
to the teachings of the Buddha
will quench the burning fire of lust
by the perception of the impure.
25. Dosaggiṃ pana mettāya
nibbāpenti naruttamā
mohaggiṃ pana paññāya
yāyaṃ nibbedhagāminiṃ
By love they will quench the fire of hate,
by wisdom the fire of delusion.
Those supreme men extinguish delusion
with wisdom that breaks through to truth.
  4. Dānavagga Giving
26. Na samaṇe na brāhmaṇe
na kapaṇaddhikavanibbake
laddhāna samvibhājeti
annaṃ pānañca bhojanaṃ
taṃ ve avuṭṭhikasamoti
āhu naṃ purisādhamaṃ
Not with recluses or brahmans,
neither with the poor and needy
does the base man share his food
or give any drink or sustenance.
People say that selfish man
is like a drought, a rainless sky.
27. Ekaccānaṃ na dadāti
Ekaccānaṃ pavecchati
taṃ ve padesavassīti
āhu medhāvino janā
One who shares his wealth with some,
but does not gladly give to others,
is only like a local shower:
in such a way the wise describe him.
28. Subhikkhavāco puriso
āmodamāno pakireti
detha dethāti bhāsati
But one who rains down bountiful gifts,
gladly giving here and there
out of compassion for all beings,
and who always says "Give, give, … …"
29. Yathāpi megho thanayitvā
gajjayitvā pavassati
thalaṃ ninnañca pūreti
abhisandantova vārinā
evaṃeva idhekacco
puggalo hoti tādiso
This type of person is like
a giant cloud filled with rain,
thundering and pouring down
refreshing water everywhere,
drenching the highlands and lowlands too,
generous without distinctions.
30. Dhammena saṃharitvāna
uṭṭhānādhigataṃ dhanaṃ
tappeti annapānena
sammā patte vanibbake
With his wealth collected justly,
won through his own efforts,
he shares both food and drink
with beings who are in need.
31. Yathāpi kumbho sampuṇṇo
yassa kassaci adhokato
vamatevudakaṃ nissesaṃ
na tattha parirakkhati
Just as a pot filled with water
if overturned by anyone,
pours out all its water
and does not hold any back,
32. Tatheva yācake disvā
dadāhi dānaṃ nissesaṃ
kumbho viya adhokato
Even so, when you see those in need,
whether low, middle or high,
then give like the overturned pot,
holding nothing back.
33. Danañca peyyavajjañca
atthacariyā ca yā idha
samānattatā ca dhammesu
tattha tattha yathārahaṃ
ete kho saṅgahā loke
rathassāṇīva yāyato
Generosity, kind words,
doing a good turn for others,
and treating all people alike:
these bonds of sympathy are to the world
what the lynch-pin is to the chariot wheel.
34. Annado balado hoti
vatthado hoti vaṇṇado
yānado sukhado hoti
dīpado hoti cakkhudo
Giving food one gives strength,
giving clothes one gives beauty,
giving transport one gives delight,
giving lamps one gives sight,
35. So ca sabbadado hoti
yo dadāti upassayaṃ
amataṃ dado ca so hoti
yo dhammamanusāsati
Giving shelter one gives all;
but one who instructs in the Dhamma,
the excellent teaching of the Buddha,
such a person gives ambrosia.
  5. Sīlavagga Virtue
36. Sīlaṃevidha sikkhetha
asmiṃ loke susikkhitaṃ
sīlaṃ hi sabbasampattiṃ
upanāmeti sevitaṃ
Here in the world one should train
carefully to purify virtue;
for virtue when well cultivated
brings all success to hand.
37. Yo pāṇaṃ nātipāteti
musāvādaṃ na bhāsati
loke adinnaṃ nādiyati
paradāraṃ na gacchati
Not harming living beings,
not speaking lies, taking nothing
in all the world unasked, nor
going to the wives of other men,
38. Surāmerayapānañca
yo naro nānuyuñjati
pahāya pañca verāni
sīlavā iti vuccati
And never drinking intoxicants:
One who gives up these five harmful acts
and does not engage in them
is truly called a virtuous man.
39. Ādi sīlaṃ patiṭṭhā ca
kaḷyāṇānañca mātukaṃ
pamukhaṃ sabbadhammānaṃ
tasmā sīlaṃ visodhaye
Virtue is the foundation,
the forerunner and origin
of all that is good and beautiful;
therefore one should purify virtue.
40. Sīlaṃ balaṃ appaṭimaṃ
sīlaṃ āvudhamuttamaṃ
sīlamābharaṇaṃ seṭṭhaṃ
sīlaṃ kavacamabbhutaṃ
Virtue is a mighty power,
Virtue is a mighty weapon,
Virtue is the supreme adornment,
Virtue is a wonderful armour.
41. Na jaccā vasalo hoti
na jaccā hoti brāhmaṇo
kammanā vasalo hoti
kammanā hoti brāhmaṇo
One is not low because of birth
nor does birth make one holy.
Deeds alone make one low,
deeds alone make one holy.
42. Anaṅgaṇassa posassa
niccaṃ sucigavesino
vālaggamattaṃ pāpassa
abbhamattaṃva khāyati
To one who is without evil,
always striving for purity,
a wrong the size of a hair tip
seems as big as a rain cloud.
43. Puññameva so sikkheyya
āyataggaṃ sukhudrayaṃ
dānañca samacariyañca
mettacittañca bhāvaye
Train yourself in doing good
that lasts and brings happiness.
Cultivate generosity, the life of peace,
and a mind of boundless love.
44. Sīlaṃ ajarasā sādhu
saddhā sādhu adhiṭṭhitā
paññā narānaṃ ratanaṃ
puññaṃ corehyahāriyaṃ
The good luck of virtue never fades,
faith also brings great good.
Wisdom is man’s most precious gem,
merit no thief can ever steal.
45. Sabbadā sīlasampanno
paññāvā susamāhito
ajjhattacintī satimā
oghaṃ tarati duttaraṃ
In every virtue all-accomplished,
with wisdom full and mind composed,
looking within and ever mindful -
thus one crosses the raging flood.
  6. Vācāvagga Speech
46. Purisassa hi jātassa
kuṭhārī jāyate mukhe
yāya chindati attānaṃ
bālo dubbhāsitaṃ bhaṇaṃ
Every fool who is born
has an axe within his mouth
with which he cuts himself
when he uses wrong speech.
47. Tameva vācaṃ bhāseyya
yāyattānaṃ na tāpaye
pare ca na vihiṃseyya
sā ve vācā subhāsitā
One should utter only words
which do no harm to oneself
and cause no harm for others:
that is truly beautiful speech.
48. Piyavācameva bhāseyya
yā vācā paṭinanditā
yaṃ anādāya pāpāni
paresaṃ bhāsate piyaṃ
Speak kind words, words
rejoiced at and welcomed,
words that bear ill will to none;
always speak kindly to others.
49. Tasseva tena pāpiyo
yo kuddhaṃ paṭikujjhati
kuddhaṃ appaṭikujjhanto
saṅgāmaṃ jeti dujjayaṃ
The worse of the two is he
who, when abused, retaliates.
One who does not retaliate
wins a battle hard to win.
50. Jayaṃ ve maññati bālo
vācāya pharusaṃ bhaṇaṃ
jayañcevassa taṃ hoti
yo titikkhā vijānato
The fool thinks he has won a battle
when he bullies with harsh speech,
but knowing how to be forbearing
alone makes one victorious.
51. Yaṃ samaṇo bahuṃ bhāsati
upetaṃ atthasañhitaṃ
jānaṃ so dhammaṃ deseti
jānaṃ so bahu bhāsati
When the recluse speaks much
it is only to speak about the goal.
Knowingly he teaches the Dhamma,
knowingly he speaks much.
52. Yo ve na byādhati patvā
parisaṃ uggahavādinaṃ
na ca hāpeti vacanaṃ
na ca chādeti sāsanaṃ
If one addresses those who wish
to learn, without wavering, imparting
understanding, opening up and not
obscuring the teaching,
53. Asandiddhañca bhaṇati
pucchito na ca kuppati
sa ve tādisako bhikkhu
dūteyyaṃ gantumarahati
Speaking without hesitation nor
getting angry when asked a question,
a monk like this is worthy
to proclaim the teachings.
54. Nābhāsamānaṃ jānanti
missaṃ bālehi paṇḍitaṃ
bhāsamānañca jānanti
desentaṃ amataṃ padaṃ
bhāsaye jotaye dhammaṃ
paggaṇhe isinaṃ dhajaṃ
If he does not speak up, others know
him not; he is just a wise man mixed
up with fools. But if he speaks about
and teaches the Deathless, others will
know him. So let him light up the Dhamma,
let him lift the sage’s banner high.
55. Yaṃ buddho bhāsati vācaṃ
khemaṃ nibbānapattiyā
sā ve vācānamuttamā
The Buddha speaks words that lead
to the winning of security, the ending
of sorrow and the attaining of Nibbāna.
Truly, this is the speech supreme.
  7. Bhogavagga Wealth
56. Jīvate vāpi sappañño
api vittaparikkhayo
paññāya ca alābhena
vittavāpi na jīvati
The wise man continues to live
even if he should lose his wealth.
But the rich man without wisdom
is not alive even now.
57. Appakenāpi medhāvī
pābhatena vicakkhaṇo
samuṭṭhāpeti attānaṃ
aṇuṃ aggiṃva sandhamanti
Starting off with little wealth,
the wise man skilfully increases it,
just as a sudden draught of wind
can make a spark of fire grow.
58. Susaṃvihitakammantaṃ
kāluṭṭhāyiṃ atanditaṃ
sabbe bhogābhivaḍḍhanti
gāvo sausabhāmiva
If he plans his project well,
rises early and works untiringly,
all his wealth will increase
like cows penned in with a bull.
59. Paṇḍito sīlasampanno
jalaṃ aggīva bhāsati
bhoge saṃharamānassa
bhamarasseva irīyato
One who is virtuous and wise
shines forth like a blazing fire;
like a bee collecting nectar
he acquires wealth by harming none.
60. Catudhā vibhaje bhoge
sa ve mittāni ganthati
ekena bhoge bhuñjeyya
dvīhi kammaṃ payojaye
catutthañca nidhāpeyya
āpadāsu bhavissati
He divides his wealth in four
and thus he wins friendship.
One portion he uses for his needs,
two portions for his business,
the fourth portion he saves
for times of emergency.
61. Susaṃvihitakammantā
bhattu manāpaṃ carati
sambhataṃ anurakkhati
Deft and capable at her work,
in harmony with other people,
a wife is pleasing to her husband
and carefully looks after his wealth.
62. Saddhā sīlena sampannā
vadaññū vītamaccharā
niccaṃ maggaṃ visodheti
sotthānaṃ samparāyikaṃ
Endowed with faith and virtue,
speaking gently, free from selfishness:
such a woman purifies the pathway
leading to future happiness.
63. Saddhādhanaṃ sīladhanaṃ
hiri ottappiyaṃ dhanaṃ
sutadhanañca cāgo ca
paññā ve sattamaṃ dhanaṃ
The wealth of faith and virtue’s wealth,
the wealth of conscience and fear of blame,
the wealth of learning and giving too,
and as the seventh, wisdom’s wealth:
64. Yassa ete dhanā atthi
itthiyā purisassa vā
adaliddoti taṃ āhu
amoghaṃ tassa jīvitaṃ
Those who have these treasures true,
be they women or be they men,
are not poor or destitute,
nor have their lives been lived in vain.
65. Patirūpakārī dhuravā
uṭṭhātā vindate dhanaṃ
saccena kittiṃ pappoti
dadaṃ mittāni ganthati
Whoever acts, strives and toils
shall acquire wealth;
by truthfulness one gains good repute,
and by giving one binds friends.
  8. Mittatāvagga Friendship
66. Asantassa piyā honti
sante na kurute piyaṃ
asataṃ dhammaṃ roceti
taṃ parābhavato mukhaṃ
To be in communion with the bad,
and choose the ways of the bad,
to have no friends among the good,
this is a source of suffering.
67. Sabbhireva samāsetha
sabbhi kubbetha santhavaṃ
sataṃ saddhammamaññāya
paññā labbhati nāññato
Consort only with the good,
come together with the good.
To learn the teaching of the good
gives wisdom like nothing else can.
68. Pūtimacchaṃ kusaggena
yo naro upanayhati
kusāpi pūti vāyanti
evaṃ bālūpasevanā
If one strings a piece of putrid fish
on a blade of kusa grass,
the grass will soon smell putrid too:
the same with one who follows a fool.
69. Tagarañca palāsena
yo naro upanayhati
pattāpi surabhi vāyanti
evaṃ dhīrūpasevana
If one wraps frankincense,
in any ordinary kind of leaf,
the leaf will soon smell sweet too:
the same with one who follows the wise.
70. Tasmā palāsapuṭasseva
ñatvā sampākamattano
asante nupaseveyya
sante seveyya paṇḍito
Remembering the example of the leaf,
and understanding the results,
one should seek companionship
with the wise, never with the bad.
71. Sattho pathavasato mittaṃ
mātā mittaṃ sake ghare
sahāyo atthajātassa
hoti mittaṃ punappunaṃ
sayaṃkatāni puññāni
taṃ mittaṃ samparāyikaṃ
A companion is a traveller’s friend,
a mother is a friend at home,
one who helps in time of need
is a good and steady friend.
And the good deeds done by oneself
are one’s true friends in time to come.
72. Upakāro ca yo mitto
yo ca mitto sukhe dukkhe
atthakkhāyī ca yo mitto
yo ca mittānukampako:
A friend who always lends a hand,
a friend in both sorrow and joy,
a friend who offers good counsel,
a friend who sympathises too:
73. Etepi mitte cattāro
iti viññāya paṇḍito
sakkaccaṃ payirupāseyya
mātā puttaṃ va orasaṃ
These are the four kinds of true friends:
one who is wise, having understood,
will always cherish and serve such friends
just as a mother tends her only child.
74. Kalyāṇamitto yo bhikkhu
sappatisso sagāravo
karaṃ mittānaṃ vacanaṃ
sampajāno patissato
pāpuṇe anupubbena
The monk who has a lovely friend,
who pays respect and deference to him,
and acts as his friend advises,
with mindfulness and comprehension clear,
will in time be freed from bonds;
all his fetters will be destroyed.
75. Abbhatītasahāyassa
natthi etādisaṃ mittaṃ
yathā kāyagatā sati
For one whose friend has passed away,
for one whose teacher no more lives,
there is no other friend in this world
like mindfulness of the body.
  9. Sutavagga Learning
76. Sussūsā sutavaḍḍhanī
sutaṃ paññāya vaddhanaṃ
paññāya atthaṃ jānāti
ñāto attho sukhāvaho
Desire to learn increases learning;
learning makes wisdom increase.
By wisdom is the goal known;
knowing the goal brings happiness.
77. Bahussutaṃ upāseyya
sutañca na vināsaye
taṃ mūlaṃ brahmacariyassa
tasmā dhammadharo siyā
One should follow the learned man,
and should not neglect learning;
for that is the foundation of the holy life.
Therefore be well versed in Dhamma.
78. Bahussutaṃ dhammadharaṃ
sappaññaṃ buddhasāvakaṃ
nekkhaṃ jambonadasseva
ko taṃ ninditumarahati
devāpi naṃ pasaṃsanti
brahmunāpi pasaṃsito
Learned, knowing the Dhamma,
truly wise, the Buddha’s disciple
is like the finest gold of Jambu.
Who can find any blame in him?
Even the gods sing his praise;
Brahmā himself sings his praise. [5]
79. Appassutopi ce hoti,
sīlesu susamāhito;
Sīlato naṃ pasaṃsanti,
tassa sampajjate sutaṃ.
If one who has little learning
is strong in virtue, others
will praise his virtue only,
because his learning is incomplete.
80. Bahussutopi ce hoti,
sīlesu asamāhito;
Sīlato naṃ garahanti,
nāssa sampajjate sutaṃ.
If one who has much learning
is weak in virtue, others
will blame him for his conduct
though his learning is complete.
81. Bahussutopi ce hoti,
sīlesu susamāhito;
Ubhayena naṃ pasaṃsanti,
sīlato ca sutena ca.
But if one has much learning
and is also strong in virtue,
he will be praised for both
his virtue and his learning.
82. Bahussuto appassutaṃ
yo sutenātimaññati
andho padīpadhārova
tatheva paṭibhāti maṃ
A learned man who, because of his learning,
despises one with little learning,
seems to me like a stone-blind man
walking around with a lamp in hand.
83. Tasmā hi attakāmena
saddhammo garukātabbo
saraṃ buddhāna sāsanaṃ
One who loves his own true welfare,
who is concerned with his own good,
should pay homage to the Dhamma
and always remember the Buddha’s words.
84 Sammā manaṃ paṇidhāya
sammā vācaṃ abhāsiya
sammā kammāni katvāna
kāyena idha puggalo
Having a rightly directed mind,
speaking rightly spoken speech,
doing here with the body
only deeds that are right and good.
85. Bahussuto puññakaro
apasmiṃ idha jīvite
kāyassa bhedā sappañño
saggaṃ so upapajjati
Learned, doing much that is worthy
even in a life that is short -
a wise person such as this
will be reborn in a happy place.
  10. Sāvakavagga The Disciple
86. Mātari pitari cāpi
yo sammā paṭipajjati
tathāgate vā sambuddhe
atha vā tassa sāvake
bahuñca so pasavati
puññaṃ etādiso naro
If one behaves rightly
toward his mother and his father,
towards the Buddha well-attained,
and the disciples of the Buddha,
such a person generates
an abundant store of good.
87. Bhikkhu ca sīlasampanno
bhikkhunī ca bahussutā
upāsako ca yo saddho
yā ca saddhā upāsikā
ete kho saṅghaṃ sobhenti
ete hi saṅghasobhanā
The monk well-possessed of virtue,
the nun who is widely learned,
male and female lay disciples
who are fully endowed with faith -
it is they who illuminate the Saṅgha,
"lights of the Saṅgha" they are called.
88. Yassa sabrahmacārīsu
gāravo nūpalabbhati
ārakā hoti saddhammā
nabhaṃ puthaviyā yathā
One who has no respect for those
who live the holy life with him,
is as far from this good Dhamma
as the sky is from the earth.
89. Yassa sabrahmacārīsu
gāravo upalabbhati
so virūhati saddhamme
khette bījamva bhaddakaṃ
One who has respect for those
who live the holy life with him,
comes to growth in this good Dhamma
like a healthy seed in the field.
90. Itthibhāvo kiṃ kayirā
cittamhi susamāhite
ñāṇamhi vattamānamhi
sammā dhammaṃ vipassato
A woman’s nature is unimportant
when the mind is still and firm,
when knowledge grows day by day,
and she has insight into Dhamma.
91. Yassa nūna siyā evaṃ
itthāhaṃ purisoti vā
kiñci vā pana asmīti
taṃ māro vattumarahati
One who thinks such thoughts
as "I am a woman" or "I am a man"
or any other thought "I am …"
Māra is able to address that one.
92. Dummedhehi pasaṃsā ca
viññūhi garahā ca yā
garahāva seyyo viññūhi
yaṃ ce bālappasaṃsanā
The fools offer praise and the wise
offer blame. Truly the blame
of the wise is much better
than the praise of the fool.
93. Sāgārā anagārā ca
ubho aññoññanissitā
ārādhayanti saddhammaṃ
yogakkhemaṃ anuttaraṃ
Home dwellers and the homeless both,
by depending upon one another
come to realise the good Dhamma,
the utter freedom from bondage.
94. Anubandhopi ce assa
mahiccho ca vighātavā
ejānugo anejassa
nibbutassa anibbuto
giddho so vitāgedhassa
passa yāvañca ārakā
Though physically close behind,
if one is acquisitive and restless,
how far is that turbulent one
from one freed from turbulence,
that burning one from one cooled,
that hankering one from the greedless!
95. Sukhā saṅghassa sāmaggī
samaggarato dhammaṭṭho
yogakkhemā na dhaṃsati
A happy thing is concord in the Saṅgha!
One who assists in making harmony,
loving concord and righteousness,
does not fall away from freedom.
  11. Cittavagga Mind
96. Cittena nīyati loko
cittena parikassati
cittassa ekadhammassa
sabbeva vasamanvagū
The world is led around by mind,
by mind the world is plagued.
Mind is itself the single thing,
which brings all else beneath its sway.
97. Manopubbaṅgamā dhammā
manoseṭṭhā manomayā
Manasā ce pasannena
bhāsati vā karoti vā
tato naṃ sukhamanveti
chāyā va anapāyinī
Mind precedes all things;
mind is their chief, mind is their maker.
If one speaks or does a deed
with a mind that is pure within,
happiness then follows along
like a never departing shadow.
98. Sududdasaṃ sunipuṇaṃ
cittaṃ rakkhetha medhāvī
cittaṃ guttaṃ sukhāvahaṃ
Difficult to detect and very subtle,
the mind seizes whatever it wants;
so let a wise man guard his mind,
for, a guarded mind brings happiness.
99. Dunniggahassa lahuno
cittassa damatho sādhu
cittaṃ dantaṃ sukhāvahaṃ
Wonderful it is to train the mind
so swiftly moving, seizing whatever it wants.
Good is it to have a well-trained mind,
for a well-trained mind brings happiness.
100. Phandanaṃ capalaṃ cittaṃ
durakkhaṃ dunnivārayaṃ
ujuṃ karoti medhāvī
usukārova tejanaṃ
As a fletcher straightens an arrow,
even so one who is wise
will straighten out the fickle mind,
so unsteady and hard to control.
101. Na taṃ mātā pitā kayirā
aññe vāpi ca ñātakā
sammāpaṇihitaṃ cittaṃ
seyyaso naṃ tato kare
No mother nor father nor
any other kin can do
greater good for oneself
than a mind directed well.
102. Anabhijjhālu vihareyya
abyāpannena cetasā
sato ekaggacittassa
ajjhattaṃ susamāhito
Live without covetous greed,
fill your mind with benevolence.
Be mindful and one-pointed,
inwardly stable and concentrated.
103. Pañca kāmaguṇā loke
manochaṭṭhā paveditā
ettha chandaṃ virājetvā
evaṃ dukkhā pamuccati
There are five strands of sensual pleasure
with the mind as the sixth;
by overcoming desire for these
one will be freed from suffering.
104. Mama selūpamaṃ cittaṃ
ṭhitaṃ nānupakampati
virattaṃ rajanīyesu
kuppanīye na kuppati
mamevaṃ bhāvitaṃ cittaṃ
kuto maṃ dukkhamessatī
My mind is firm like a rock,
unattached to sensual things,
no shaking in the midst
of a world where all is shaking.
My mind has thus been well-developed.
So how can suffering come to me?
105. Yo ca caraṃ vā tiṭṭhaṃ vā
nisinno uda vā sayaṃ
vitakkaṃ samayitvāna
vitakkūpasame rato
bhabbo so tādiso bhikkhu
phuṭṭhuṃ sambodhimuttamaṃ
Whether he walks or stands
or sits or lies, a monk
should take delight in
controlling all thoughts.
Such a monk is qualified
to reach supreme enlightenment.
  12. Sikkhāvagga The Training
106. Atisītaṃ atiuṇhaṃ,
atisāyamidaṃ ahu;
Iti vissaṭṭhakammante,
atthā accenti māṇave
"It’s too cold, it’s too hot,
it’s too late." With such excuses
one who gives up the practice
lets his opportunities slip.
107. Yodha sītañca unhañca
tinā bhiyyo na maññati
karaṃ purisakiccāni
so sukhā na vihāyati
But one who looks on cold and heat
as no more obstructive than straw
and continues with the practice
does not fall short of happiness.
108. Alīinacitto ca siyā
na cāpi bahu cintaye
nirāmagandho asito
So rid the mind of sloth and dullness.
Give up thinking of many things.
Be healthy and unattached to pleasure.
Be devoted to the holy life.
109. Ūnūdaro mitāhāro
appichassa alolupo
sa ve icchāya nicchāto
aniccho hoti nibbuto
Lean in body, frugal in food,
content with little and undisturbed,
vain wishes gone and craving stilled,
thus the wantfree attain Nibbāna.
110. Sa jhānapasuto dhīro
vanante ramito siyā
jhāyetha rukkhamūlasmiṃ
One who is stable in meditation
will delight at the woodland’s edge,
meditating at the foot of a tree
until joy and contentment are won.
111. Kāmacchando ca byāpādo
thinamiddhañca bhikkhuno
uddhaccaṃ vicikicchā ca
sabbasova na vijjati
Sense desire, ill will,
sloth, laziness, agitation,
and doubt are not found
in a true and worthy monk.
112. Na sabbato mano nivāraye
na mano saṃyatattamāgataṃ
yato yato ca pāpakaṃ
tato tato mano nivāraye
Do not hold back the mind from all,
for it is not yet put to sleep.
But whenever evil things arise,
then should the mind be held in check.
113. Vīriyasātaccasampanno
yuttayogo sadā siyā
na ca appatvā dukkhantaṃ
vissāsaṃ eyya paṇḍito
Possessed of energy and perserverance,
be always earnest in applying yourself.
The wise one should not be confident
until the end of suffering is reached.
114. Samādhiratanamālassa
kuvitakkā na jāyare
na ca vikkipate cittaṃ
etaṃ tumhe piḷandhathā
With the jewelled necklace of concentration,
wrong thoughts cannot arise
nor can the mind be distracted.
So let this be your adornment.
115. Ānāpānasatī yassa
paripuṇṇā subhāvitā
anupubbaṃ paricitā
yathā buddhena desitā
somaṃ lokaṃ pabhāseti
abbhā mutova candimā
One who has gradually practised,
developed and brought to perfection
mindfulness of the in-and-out breath,
as taught by the Enlightened One,
illuminates the entire world
like the moon when freed from clouds.
  13. Vāyāmavagga Effort
116. Pamādo rajo pamādo
pamādānupatito rajo
appamādena vijjāya
abbūḷhe sallamattano
Indolence is dust;
dust comes in the wake of indolence.
With knowledge and vigilance,
draw out the arrow from yourself.
117. Niddāsīlī sabhāsīlī
anuṭṭhātā ca yo naro
alaso kodhapaññāṇo
taṃ parābhavato mukhaṃ
When one loves company and sleep,
when one is lax and slack,
when one is often given to anger -
this is a source of suffering.
118. Saṃvaro ca pahānañca
bhāvanā anurakkhaṇā
ete padhānā cattāro
The effort to restrain, to abandon,
to develop and to maintain:
these are the four exertions
taught by the Kinsman of the Sun.
119. Uṭṭhahatha nisīdatha
ko attho supitena vo?
Āturānañhi kā niddā
sallaviddhāna ruppataṃ?
Arise! Sit up! Of what use
are your dreams? How can you
continue to sleep when you are sick,
pierced with the arrow of grief?
120. Amoghaṃ divasaṃ kayirā
appena bahukena vā
yaṃ yaṃ vijahate rattiṃ
tadūnaṃ tassa jīvitaṃ
Make your day productive
whether by little or by much.
Every day and night that passes,
your life is that much less.
121. Yo dandhakāle dandheti
taraṇīye ca tāraye
yoniso saṃvidhānena
sukhaṃ pappoti paṇḍito
The wise one who hurries when
hurrying is needed and who slows down
when slowness is needed, is happy
because his priorities are right.
122. Āraddhavīriye pahitatte
niccaṃ daḷhaparakkame
samagge sāvake passe
esā budhāna vandanā
See the disciples in perfect harmony,
resolute and making effort,
always firm in their progress -
this is the best worship of the Buddha.
123. Niddaṃ tandiṃ vijambhitaṃ
aratiṃ bhattasammadaṃ
vīriyena naṃ paṇāmetvā
ariyamaggo visujjhati
Sloth, torpor and drowsiness,
boredom and heaviness after meals -
by expelling these with energy
the noble path is purified.
124. Saddhāya taratī oghaṃ
appamādena aṇṇavaṃ
vīriyena dukkhamacceti
paññāya parisujjhati
The flood is crossed by faith,
by vigilance the sea is crossed,
pain is overcome with vigour
by wisdom one is purified.
125. Ujumaggamhi akkhāte
gacchatha mā nivattatha
attanā codayattānaṃ
The straight path has been clearly shown:
walk forward and don’t turn back.
Urge yourself onwards by yourself;
in that way attain Nibbāna
  14. Sativagga Mindfulness
126. Sambādhe vāpi vindanti
dhammaṃ nibbānapattiyā
ye satiṃ paccalatthaṃsu
sammā te susamāhitā
Even when obstacles crowd in,
the path to Nibbāna can be won
by those who establish mindfulness
and bring to perfection equipoise.
127. Sace dhāvati cittaṃ te
kāmesu ca bhavesu ca
khippaṃ niggaṇha satiyā
kiṭṭhādaṃ viya duppasuṃ
If your mind runs wild among
sensual pleasures and things that arise,
quickly restrain it with mindfulness
as one pulls the cow from the corn.
128. Ubhinnamatthaṃ carati
attano ca parassa ca
paraṃ saṅkupitaṃ ñatvā
yo sato upasammati
Knowing that the other person is angry,
one who remains mindful and calm
acts for his own best interest
and for the others’ interest, too.
129. Ubhinnaṃ tikicchantānaṃ
attano ca parassa ca
janā maññanti bāloti
ye dhammassa akovidā
He is a healer of both
himself and the other person;
only those think him a fool
who do not understand the Dhamma.
130. Yataṃ care yataṃ tiṭṭhe
yataṃ acche yataṃ saye
yataṃ samiñjaye bhikkhu
yatāmenaṃ pasāraye
Whether he walks, stands, sits
or lies, stretches out his limbs
or draws them in again, let a
monk do so with composure.
131. Uddhaṃ tiriyaṃ apācīnaṃ
yāvatā jagato gati
samavekkhitā ca dhammānaṃ
khandhānaṃ udayabbayaṃ
Above, across or back again,
wherever he goes in the world
let him carefully scrutinise
the rise and fall of compounded things.
132. Evaṃ vihārimātāpiṃ
sikkhamānaṃ sadā sataṃ
satataṃ pahitattoti
āhu bhikkhuṃ tathāvidhaṃ
Living thus ardently,
at peace within, not restless
or mentally agitated,
training himself, always mindful:
people call such a monk
"one constantly resolute."
133. Na so rajjati dhammesu
dhammaṃ ñatvā patissato
virattacitto vedeti
tañca nājjhossa tiṭṭhati
Not excited by mental phenomena,
one knows them through mindfulness;
thus with a mind well detached
one understands and does not cling.
134. Satipaṭṭhānakusalā
vipassakā dhammadharā
dhamma nagare vasantite
Those skilled in the foundations of mindfulness,
delighting in the enlightenment factors,
with knowledge of Dhamma and keen insight,
live in the city of Dhamma.
135. Sammappadhānasampanno
Possessed of persevering energy,
practising the foundations of mindfulness,
bedecked with the blossoms of freedom,
you will be cooled and undefiled.
  15. Attaparavagga Oneself and Others
136. Sabbe tasanti daṇḍassa
sabbesaṃ jīvitaṃ piyaṃ
attānaṃ upamaṃ katvā
na haneyya na ghātaye
All tremble at punishment.
Life is dear to all.
Put yourself in the place of others;
kill none nor have another killed.
137. Attanāva kataṃ pāpaṃ
attanā saṃkilissati
attanā akataṃ pāpaṃ
attanāva visujjhati
suddhī asuddhi paccattaṃ
nāñño aññaṃ visodhaye
By doing evil, one defiles oneself;
by avoiding evil, one purifies oneself.
Purity and impurity depend on oneself:
no one can purify another.
138. Attadatthaṃ paratthena
bahunā pi na hāpaye
sadatthapasuto siyā
Let no one neglect one’s own welfare
for the welfare of others however much.
Clearly understanding one’s own welfare
strive always for one’s own true good.
139. Attānameva paṭhamaṃ
patirūpe nivesaye
na kilisseyya paṇḍito
One should first establish oneself
in what is proper and only then
try to instruct others. Doing this,
the wise one will not be criticised.
140. Attānaṃ ce tathā kayirā
sudanto vata dametha
attā hi kira duddamo
If only you would do what you teach others
then being yourself controlled
you could control others well.
Truly self-control is difficult.
141. Yo cattānaṃ samukkaṃse
pare ca mavajānāti
nihīno sena mānena
taṃ jaññā vasalo iti
One who exalts himself
and disparages others
because of smugness and conceit;
know him as an outcaste man.
142. Na paresaṃ vilomāni
na paresaṃ katākataṃ
attanova avekkheyya
katāni akatāni ca
Look not to the faults of others,
nor to their omissions and commissions.
But rather look to your own acts,
to what you have done and left undone.
143. Paravajjānupassissa
niccaṃ ujjhānasaññino
āsavā tassa vaḍḍhanti
ārā so āsavakkhayā
When one looks down at others’ faults
and is always full of envy,
one’s defilements continually grow;
far is one from their destruction.
144. Sudassaṃ vajjamaññesaṃ
attano pana duddasaṃ
paresaṃ hi so vajjāni
opunāti yathā bhusaṃ
attano pana chādeti
kaliṃva kitavā saṭho
Easily seen are the faults of others,
one’s own are difficult to see.
By winnowing the chaff of others’ faults,
one’s own are obscured, like a crafty
fowler hidden behind the branches.
145. Attanā codayattānaṃ
patimāse attamattanā
so attagutto satimā
sukhaṃ bhikkhu vihāhisi
You yourself must watch yourself,
you yourself must examine yourself,
and so self-guarded and mindful,
O monk, you will live in happiness.
  16. Mettāvagga I Love I
146 Anatthajanano doso doso cittappakopano bhayamantarato jātaṃ taṃ jano nāvabujjhati Hate brings great misfortune, hate churns up and harms the mind; this fearful danger deep within most people do not understand.
147 Duṭṭho atthaṃ na jānāti duṭṭho dhammaṃ na passati andhatamaṃ tadā hoti yaṃ doso sahate naraṃ Thus spoilt one cannot know the good, cannot see things as they are. Only blindness and gloom prevail when one is overwhelmed by hate.
148 Yo na hanti na ghāteti na jināti na jāpaye mettāṃso sabbabhūtesu veraṃ tassa na kenaci He who does not strike nor makes others strike, who robs not nor makes others rob, sharing love with all that live, finds enmity with none.
149 Satīmato sadā bhaddaṃ satimā sukhamedhati satīmato suve seyyo verā na parimuccati For the mindful one there is always good; for the mindful one happiness increases; for the mindful one things go better yet he is not freed from enemies.
150 Yassa sabbamahorattaṃ ahiṃsāya rato mano mettāṃ so sabbabhūtesu veraṃ tassa na kenaci But he who both day and night takes delight in harmlessness sharing love with all that live, finds enmity with none.
151 Yo ve mettena cittena sabbalokānukampati uddhaṃ adho ca tiriyaṃ appamāneṇa sabbaso When one with a mind of love feels compassion for all the world - above, below and across, unlimited everywhere,
152 Appamāṇaṃ hitaṃ cittaṃ paripuṇṇaṃ subhāvitaṃ yaṃ pamāṇakataṃ kammaṃ na taṃ tatrāvasissati Filled with infinite kindness, complete and well-developed - any limited actions one may have done do not remain lingering in one’s mind.
153 Mettacittā kāruṇikā hotha sīlesu saṃvutā āraddhavīriyā pahitattā niccaṃ daḷhaparakkamā Develop a mind full of love; be compassionate and restrained in virtue; arouse your energy, be resolute, always firm in making progress.
154 Yathāpi ekaputtasmiṃ piyasmiṃ kusalī siyā evaṃ sabbesu pāṇesu sabbattha kusalo siyā Just as a loving mother would guard her only dearly beloved child, so towards creatures everywhere one should always wish for their good.
155 Cittañca susamāhitaṃ vippasannamanāvilaṃ akhilaṃ sabbabhūtesu so maggo brahmapattiyā A mind composed, well-concentrated, purified and undefiled, full of kindness towards all beings - this is the way that leads to Brahmā.
  17. Mettāvagga II Love II
156. Yathāpi udakaṃ nāma
kalyāṇe pāpake jane
samaṃ pharati sītena
pavāheti rajomalaṃ
Just as water cools
both good and bad
and washes away all
impurity and dust,
157. Tatheva tvaṃpi ahitahite
samaṃ mettāya bhāvaya
mettāpāramitaṃ gantvā
sambodhiṃ pāpuṇissasi
In the same way you should develop thoughts
of love to friend and foe alike,
and having reached perfection in love,
you will attain enlightenment.
158. "Yathā ahaṃ tathā ete
yathā ete tathā ahaṃ"
attānaṃ upamaṃ katvā
na haneyya na ghātaye
"As I am, so are others;
as others are, so am I."
Having thus identified self and others,
harm no one nor have them harmed.
159. Apādakehi me mettaṃ
mettaṃ dvipādakehi me,
catuppadehi me mettaṃ
mettaṃ bahuppadehi me
I have love for the footless,
for the bipeds too I have love;
I have love for those with four feet,
for the many-footed I have love.
160. Mā maṃ apādako hiṃsi
mā maṃ hiṃsi dvipādako
mā maṃ catuppado hiṃsi
mā maṃ hiṃsi bahuppado
May the footless harm me not,
may the bipeds harm me not,
may those with four feet harm me not,
may those with many feet harm me not.
161. Sabbe sattā sabbe pāṇā
sabbe bhūtā ca kevalā
sabbe bhadrāni passantu
mā kañci pāpamāgamā
May all creatures, all living things,
all beings one and all,
experience good fortune only.
May they not fall into harm.
162. Sabbamitto sabbasakho
mettacittañca bhāvemi
abyāpajjarato sadā
I am a friend and helper to all,
I am sympathetic to all living beings.
I develop a mind full of love
and always delight in harmlessness.
163. Asaṃhīraṃ asaṃkuppaṃ
cittaṃ āmodayāmahaṃ
brahmavihāraṃ bhāvemi
I gladden my mind, fill it with joy,
make it immovable and unshakable.
I develop the divine states of mind
not cultivated by evil men.
164. Tasmā sakaṃ paresampi
kātabbā mettabhāvanā
mettacittena pharitabbaṃ
etaṃ buddhāna sāsanaṃ
Therefore the meditation on love
should be done for oneself and others.
All should be suffused with love:
this is the teaching of the Buddha.
165. Yo ca mettaṃ bhāvayati
appamāṇaṃ patissato
tanū saṃyojanā honti
passato upadhikkhayaṃ
Whoever makes love grow
boundless, and sets his mind
for seeing the end of birth:
his fetters are worn thin.
  18. Sukhavagga Happiness
166. Yo pubbe karaṇīyāni
pacchā so kātumicchati
sukhā so dhaṃsate ṭhānā
pacchā ca m-anutappati
One who later wishes to do
the things he should have done before
falls away from happiness
and long afterwards repents.
167. Kodhaṃ chetvā sukhaṃ seti
kodhaṃ chetvā na socati
kodhassa visamūlassa
madhuraggassa devate
vadhaṃ ariyā pasaṃsanti
tañhi chetvā na socati
Slay anger and you will be happy,
slay anger and you will not sorrow.
For the slaying of anger in all its forms
with its poisoned root and sweet sting -
that is the slaying the nobles praise;
with anger slain one weeps no more.
168. Yaṃ pare sukhato āhu
tadariyā āhu dukkhato
yaṃ pare dukkhato āhu
tadariyā sukhato vidū
passa dhammaṃ durājānaṃ
sammūḷhettha aviddasu
What others call happiness,
the noble call pain;
what others call pain,
the noble call happiness.
Behold this Dhamma hard to comprehend
by which the dull are utterly baffled.
169. Sabbadā ve sukhaṃ seti
brāhmaṇo parinibbuto
yo na limpati kāmesu
sītibhūto nirūpadhi
Always happy is the holy man
who is wholly free within,
who is not stained by sense desires -
cooled is he and free from clinging.
170. Yañca kāmasukhaṃ loke
yañcidaṃ diviyaṃ sukhaṃ
kalaṃ nāgghanti soḷasiṃ
The happiness of sensual lust
and the happiness of heavenly bliss
are not equal to a sixteenth part
of the happiness of craving’s end.
171. Sabbā āsattiyo chetvā
vineyya hadaye daraṃ
upasanto sukhaṃ seti
santiṃ pappuyya cetasā
With all his attachments cut,
with the heart’s pinings subdued,
calm and serene and happy is he,
for he has attained peace of mind.
172. Pāmojjabahulo bhikkhu
dhamme buddhappavedite
adhigacche padaṃ santaṃ
saṅkhārūpasamaṃ sukhaṃ
A monk who has abundant joy
in the Dhamma taught by the Buddha,
will attain peace and happiness,
with the calming of the constructs.
173. Sukho viveko tuṭṭhassa
sutadhammassa passato
abyāpajjaṃ sukhaṃ loke
pāṇabhūtesu saṃyamo
Solitude is happiness for one who is content,
who has heard the Dhamma and clearly sees.
Non-affliction is happiness in the world -
harmlessness towards all living beings.
174. Sukhā virāgatā loke
kāmānaṃ samatikkamo
asmimānassa yo vinayo
etaṃ ve paramaṃ sukhaṃ
Freedom from lust is happiness in the world,
the going beyond all sensual desires.
But the crushing out of the conceit "I am" -
this is the highest happiness.
175. Susukhaṃ vata nibbānaṃ
asokaṃ virajaṃ khemaṃ
yattha dukkhaṃ nirujjhati
The fully perfected Buddha has taught
Nibbāna as the highest happiness -
without grief, immaculate, secure,
the state where all suffering ceases.
  19. Tunhīvagga Silence
176. Samānabhāgaṃ kubbetha
gāme akuṭṭhavanditaṃ
manopadosaṃ rakkheyya
santo anuṇṇato care
Develop the quiet even state of mind,
when praised by some, condemned by others,
free the mind from hate and pride
and gently go your way in peace.
177. Taṃ nadīhi vijānātha
sobbhesu padaresu ca
saṇantā yanti kussubbhā
tuṇhīyati mahodadhi
Learn this from the waters:
in mountain clefts and chasms,
loud gush the streamlets,
but great rivers flow silently.
178. Yadūnakaṃ taṃ saṇati
yaṃ pūraṃ santameva taṃ
aḍḍhakumbhūpamo bālo
rahado pūrova paṇḍito
Things that are empty make a noise,
the full is always quiet.
The fool is like a half-filled pot,
the wise man like a deep still pool.
179. Kāyamuniṃ vācimuniṃ
muniṃ moneyyasampannaṃ
āhu ninhātapāpakaṃ
Silent in body, silent in speech,
silent in mind, without defilement,
blessed with silence is the sage.
He is truly washed of evil.
180. Upasanto uparato
mantabhāṇī anuddhato
dhunāti pāpake dhamme
dumapattaṃva māluto
Peaceful, quiet and restrained,
speaking little, without conceit -
such a one shakes off all evil
as wind shakes leaves off a tree.
181. Cakkhumāssa yathā andho,
sotavā badhiro yathā
paññavāssa yathā mūgo
balavā dubbaloriva.
Let one with sight be as though blind,
and one who hears be as though deaf,
let one with wisdom be as though dumb,
let one who is strong be as though weak.
182. Avitakkaṃ samāpanno
ariyena tuṇhībhāvena
upeto hoti tāvade
Having attained the meditative state
where all thoughts come to a stop,
the disciple of the perfected Buddha
thereby possesses the noble silence.
183. Yathā jaḷo va mūgo va
attānaṃ dassaye tathā
nātivelaṃ sambhāseyya
saṅghamajjhamhi paṇḍito
The wise one in the midst of an assembly
should not speak excessively long.
He should let himself appear
like a simpleton or a dullard.
184. Etaṃ nāgassa nāgena
īsādantassa hatthino
sameti cittaṃ cittena
yadeko ramatī mano
In this both mighty beings agree,
the enlightened sage and the elephant
with tusks resembling the poles of ploughs:
both love the solitude of the forest.
185. Vihavihābhinadite
sippikābhirutehi ca
na me taṃ phandati cittaṃ
ekattanirataṃ hi me
Amidst the chirping and twittering
of the birds in the woods
this mind of mine does not waver
for I am devoted to solitude.
  20. Vipassanāvagga Insight
186. Na pañcaṅgikena turiyena
rati me hoti tādisī
yathā ekaggacittassa
sammā dhammaṃ vipassato
Music from a five-piece ensemble
cannot produce as much delight
as that of a one-pointed mind
with perfect insight into things.
187. Ye santacittā nipakā
satimanto ca jhāyino
sammā dhammaṃ vipassanti
kāmesu anapekkhino
Those peaceful in mind, discerning,
mindful and meditative,
having perfect insight into things,
unconcerned with sense desires,
188. Appamādaratā santā
pamāde bhayadassino
abhabbā parihānāya
nibbānasseva santike
calm, delighting in diligence,
seeing fear in negligence,
can never fall away or fail,
for they are close to Nibbāna.
189. Atītaṃ nānusocanti
nappajappanti nāgataṃ
paccuppannena yāpenti
tena vaṇṇo pasīdati
They do not lament over the past,
they yearn not for what is to come,
they maintain themselves in the present,
thus their complexion is serene.
190. Atītaṃ nānvāgameyya
nappaṭikaṅkhe anāgataṃ
yad atītaṃ pahīnaṃ taṃ
appattañca anāgataṃ
The past should not be followed after
and the future not desired;
what is past is dead and gone
and the future is yet to come.
191. Paccuppannañca yo dhammaṃ
tattha tattha vipassati
asaṃhīraṃ asaṃkuppaṃ
taṃ vidvā manubrūhaye
But whoever gains insight into things
presently arisen in the here and now,
knowing them, unmoved, unshaken,
let him cultivate that insight.
192. Cittaṃ upaṭṭhapetvāna
ekaggaṃ susamāhitaṃ
paccavekkhatha saṅkhāre
parato no ca attato
Establish the mind, set it up
in one-pointed stability;
look upon all formations
as alien and as not self.
193. Pheṇapiṇḍūpamaṃ rūpaṃ
vedanā bubbulūpamā
marīcikūpamā saññā
saṅkhārā kadalūpamā
māyūpamañca viññānaṃ
The body is like a ball of foam,
feelings are like bubbles,
perception is like a mirage,
mental constituents like a pithy tree,
and consciousness like a magic trick.
194. Sabbalokaṃ abhiññāya
sabbaloke yathātathaṃ
sabbaloke anūpayo
Knowing the world in full directly,
the whole world just as it is,
from the whole world he is freed;
he clings to naught in all the world.
195. Sabbe sabbābhibhū dhīro
phuṭṭhāssa paramā santi
nibbānaṃ akutobhayaṃ
This sage all-victorious
with all bonds loosened,
has reached perfect peace:
Nibbāna that is void of fear.
  21. Buddhavagga The Buddha
196. Yathāpi udake jātaṃ
puṇḍarīkaṃ pavaḍḍhati
nopalippati toyena
sucigandhaṃ manoramaṃ
As the lotus is born in the water
and grows up beneath the water,
yet remains undefiled by the water,
fragrant and beautiful,
197. Tatheva ca loke jāto
buddho loke viharati
nopalippati lokena
toyena padumaṃ yathā
Just so the Buddha is born in the world,
grows up and dwells in the world,
but like the lotus unstained by water
he is not defiled by the world.
198. Mahāsamuddo pathavī
pabbato anilopi ca
upamāya na yujjanti
satthu varavimuttiyā
The mighty ocean, the earth so broad,
the mountain peak or the wind
are not adequate similes to describe
the awesome freedom of the Teacher.
199. Appameyyaṃ paminanto
kodha vidvā vikappaye
appameyṃ pamāyinaṃ
nivutaṃ taṃ maññe akissavaṃ
Who can measure the immeasurable one?
Who can fathom and determine him?
To try to measure the immeasurable one
betrays a mind devoid of wisdom.
200. Araññe rukkhamūle vā
suññāgāre va bhikkhavo
anussaretha sambuddhaṃ
bhayaṃ tumhāka no siyā
When in the forest, amongst the roots of trees,
or when retired to an empty place,
just call to mind the Buddha and
no fear or trembling will arise.
201. Hitānukampī sambuddho
vippamutto tathāgato
When the Buddha teaches others
he does so out of compassion,
because the Tathāgata is wholly freed
from both favour and aversion.
202. Yathā rattikkhaye patte
suriyuggamanaṃ dhuvaṃ
tatheva buddhaseṭṭhānaṃ
vacanaṃ dhuvasassataṃ
It is certain that the sun will rise
when the darkness of night fades away;
so too the words of the supreme Buddha
are always certain and reliable.
203. Satthugaru dhammagaru
saṅghe ca tibbagāravo
appamādagaru bhikkhu
abhabbo parihānāya
nibbānasseva santike
Deeply reverent towards the Teacher,
reverent towards the Dhamma and Saṅgha,
reverent towards vigilance,
having kindness and good will:
a monk like this cannot fail,
for he is close to Nibbāna.
204. Tenahātappaṃ karohi
idheva nipako sato
ito sutvāna nigghosaṃ
sikkhe nibbānamattano
So stir up your energy now,
be skilful and be ever mindful.
When you have heard my voice
train yourself to attain Nibbāna.
205. Ye me pavutte satthipade
anusikkhanti jhāyino
kāle te appamajjantā
na maccuvasagā siyuṃ
Those who do their best and train
in all the teachings that I have taught,
alert and meditative, shall in time
go beyond the power of death.
  22. Kittisadda Praise
206. Esa sutvā pasīdāmi
vaco te isisattama
amoghaṃ kira me puṭṭhaṃ
na maṃ vañcesi brāhmaṇo
Hearing your voice, O sage supreme,
my heart is filled with joy.
My questions truly were not in vain,
the brahmin did not deceive me.
207. Anusāsi maṃ ariyavatā
anukampi anuggahi
amogho tuyhamovādo
antevāsiṃhi sikkhito
You have taught me the noble practice,
you were compassionate and helpful to me.
Your exhortation was not in vain
for I am now your trained disciple.
208. Upemi buddhaṃ saraṇaṃ
dhammaṃ saṅghañca tādinaṃ
samādiyāmi sīlāni
taṃ me atthāya hehiti
I go for refuge to the Buddha,
to the Dhamma and to the Saṅgha.
I undertake the rules of conduct
which will be for my true welfare.
209. Asokaṃ virajaṃ khemaṃ
ariyaṭṭhaṅgikaṃ ujuṃ
taṃ maggaṃ anugacchāmi
yena tiṇṇā mahesino
I shall follow that eightfold path,
griefless, immaculate, secure,
the straight way by following which
the great sages have crossed the flood.
210. So ahaṃ vicarissāmi
gāmā gāmaṃ purā puraṃ
namassamāno sambuddhaṃ
dhammassa ca sudhammatā
I will now go from town to town,
I will go from city to city,
praising the Buddha and the Dhamma
so excellently taught by him.


Aṃguttara Nikāya
Dīgha Nikāya
Jātaka Nidānakathā
Majjhima Nikāya
Saṃyutta Nikāya


References to Dhammapada, Jātaka, Suttanipāta, Theragāthā and Therīgāthā are to verse number; references to other works are to the volume and page number of the Pali Text Society editions.

(An asterisk, *, indicates the Buddha’s own words)

Sn 544 Sabhiyasuttaṃ
S I 50 Sūriyasuttaṃ
Sn 1063 Dhotakamāṇavapucchā
Sn 1065 Dhotakamāṇavapucchā
Sn 1038 Ajitamāṇavapucchā
Sn 1053 Mettagūmāṇavapucchā
Sn 92 Parābhavasuttaṃ
It 91 Saṅghāṭikaṇṇasuttaṃ
S I 4 Susammuṭṭhasuttaṃ
Ud 6 Jaṭilasuttaṃ
S I 33 Accharāsuttaṃ
S I 33 Accharāsuttaṃ
S I 33 Accharāsuttaṃ
Miln 335 Anumānapañho
Miln 335 Anumānapañho
A II 10 Yogasuttaṃ
Thī 347 Subhākammāradhītutherīgāthā
Thī 357 Subhākammāradhītutherīgāthā
S I 117 Rajjasuttaṃ
A IV 96 Kodhanasuttaṃ
S I 85 Dutiyasaṅgāmasuttaṃ
It 8 Avijjānīvaraṇasuttaṃ
Ud 69 Paṭhamanānātitthiyasuttaṃ
It 93 Aggisuttaṃ
It 93 Aggisuttaṃ
It 66 Avuṭṭhikasuttaṃ
It 66 Avuṭṭhikasuttaṃ
It 66 Avuṭṭhikasuttaṃ
It 66 Avuṭṭhikasuttaṃ
It 66 Avuṭṭhikasuttaṃ
JN 128 Sumedhakathā
JN 129 Sumedhakathā
A II 32 Saṅgahasuttaṃ
S I 32 Kiṃdadasuttaṃ
S I 32 Kiṃdadasuttaṃ
Th 608 Sīlavattheragāthā
A II 205 Verasuttaṃ
A II 206 Verasuttaṃ
Th 612 Sīlavattheragāthā
Th 614 Sīlavattheragāthā
Sn 136 Vasalasuttaṃ
Th 1001 Khadiravaniyarevatattheragāthā
It 16 Mettasuttaṃ
S I 37 Ajarasāsuttaṃ
Sn 174 Hemavatasuttaṃ
Sn 657 Kokālikasuttaṃ
Sn 451 Subhāsitasuttaṃ
Sn 452 Subhāsitasuttaṃ
S I 163 Asurindakasuttaṃ
S I 162 Asurindakasuttaṃ
Sn 722 Nālakasuttaṃ
A IV 196 Dūteyyasuttaṃ
A IV 196 Dūteyyasuttaṃ
A II 51 Visākhasuttaṃ
Sn 454 Subhāsitasuttaṃ tatiyaṃ
Th 499 Mahākaccāyanattheragāthā
J 4 Cūḷaseṭṭhijātakaṃ
J 341 Gandhatindukajātakaṃ
D II 188 Siṅgālasuttaṃ
D II 188 Siṅgālasuttaṃ
A IV 271 Paṭhamaidhalokikasuttaṃ
A IV 271 Paṭhamaidhalokikasuttaṃ
A IV 6 Saṃkhittadhanasuttaṃ
A IV 6 Saṃkhittadhanasuttaṃ
Sn 187 Āḷavakasuttaṃ
Sn 94 Parābhavasuttaṃ
S I 17 Sabbhisuttaṃ
It 68 Sukhapatthanāsuttaṃ
It 68 Sukhapatthanāsuttaṃ
It 68 Sukhapatthanāsuttaṃ
S I 37 Mittasuttaṃ
D II 188 Siṅgālasuttaṃ
D II 188 Siṅgālasuttaṃ
It 10 Dutiyasekhasuttaṃ
Th 1035 Ānandattheragāthā
Th 141 Mahācundattheragāthā
Th 1027 Ānandattheragāthā
A II 8 Appassutasuttaṃ
A II 8 Appassutasuttaṃ
A II 8 Appassutasuttaṃ
A II 8 Appassutasuttaṃ
Th 1026 Ānandattheragāthā
A II 21 Paṭhamauruvelasuttaṃ
It 60 Sammādiṭṭhikasuttaṃ
It 60 Sammādiṭṭhikasuttaṃ
A II 4 Dutiyakhatasuttaṃ
A II 8 Sobhanasuttaṃ
Th 278 Sabhiyattheragāthā
Th 391 Mahânâgattheragâthâ
S I 129 Somāsuttaṃ
S I 129 Somāsuttaṃ
Th 668 Godattattheragāthā
It 111 Bahukārasuttaṃ
It 91 Saṅghāṭikaṇṇasuttaṃ
It 12 Saṅghasāmaggīsuttaṃ
S I 39 Cittasuttaṃ
Dhp 1 Yamakavaggo
Dhp 36 Cittavaggo
Dhp 35 Cittavaggo
Dhp 33 Cittavaggo
Dhp 43 Cittavaggo
A II 29 Dhammapadasuttaṃ
Sn 171 Hemavatasuttaṃ
Th 194 Nitakattheragāthā
It 117 Carasuttaṃ
D II 185 Siṅgālasuttaṃ
D II 185 Siṅgālasuttaṃ
Sn 717 Nālakasuttaṃ
Sn 707 Nālakasuttaṃ
Sn 709 Nālakasuttaṃ
A V 16 Pañcaṅgasuttaṃ
S I 14 Manonivāraṇasuttaṃ
Th 585 Vaṅgantaputtaupasenattheragāthā
Miln 337 Anumānapañho
Th 548 Mahākappinattheragāthā
Sn 334 Uṭṭhānasuttaṃ
Sn 96 Parābhavasuttaṃ
A II 17 Saṃvarasuttaṃ
Sn 331 Uṭṭhānasuttaṃ
Th 451 Sirimaṇḍattheragāthā
Th 293 Sambhūtattheragāthā
Thī 161 Mahāpajāpatigotamītherīgāthā
S I 7 Niddātandīsuttaṃ
Mil, Sampakkhandanalakkhaṇasaddhāpañho
Th 637 Soṇakoḷivisattheragāthā
S I 48 Pañcālacaṇḍasuttaṃ
Th 446 Brahmadattattheragāthā
S I 162 Akkosasuttaṃ
S I 162 Akkosasuttaṃ
It Sampannasīlasuttaṃ
It Sampannasīlasuttaṃ
It Sampannasīlasuttaṃ
Th 816 Mālukyaputtattheragāthā
Miln 342 Anumānapañho
Th 100 (Dutiya)-devasabhattheragāthā
Dhp 130 Daṇḍavaggo
Dhp 165 Attavaggo
Dhp 166 Attavaggo
Dhp 158 Attavaggo
Dhp 159 Attavaggo
Sn 132 Vasalasuttaṃ
Dhp 50 Pupphavaggo
Dhp 253 Malavaggo
Dhp 252 Malavaggo
Dhp 379 Bhikkhuvaggo
It 84 Antarāmalasuttaṃ
It 84 Antarāmalasuttaṃ
It 22 Mettābhāvanāsuttaṃ
S I 208 Maṇibhaddasuttaṃ
S I 208 Maṇibhaddasuttaṃ
J 37 Arakajātakaṃ
J 38 Arakajātakaṃ
Th 979 Phussattheragāthā
Th 33 Sopākattheragâthâ
S IV 118 Lohiccasuttaṃ
JN 168 Sumedhakathā
JN 169 Sumedhakathā
Sn 705 Nālakasuttaṃ
A II 72 Ahirājasuttaṃ
A II 72 Ahirājasuttaṃ
A II 72 Ahirājasuttaṃ
Th 648 Khadiravaniyarevatattheragāthā
Th 649 Khadiravaniyarevatattheragāthā
Miln 394 Nakulaṅgapañho
It 21 Mettābhāvanāsuttaṃ
Th 225 Bākulattheragāthā
S I 161 Chetvāsuttaṃ
S IV 127 Paṭhamarūpārāmasuttaṃ
S I 212 Sudattasuttaṃ
Ud 11 Rājasuttaṃ
S I 212 Sudattasuttaṃ
Th 11 Cūḷavacchattheragāthā
Ud 10 Mucalindasuttaṃ
Ud 10 Mucalindasuttaṃā
Th 227 Bākulattheragāthā
Sn 702 Nālakasuttaṃ
Sn 720 Nālakasuttaṃ
Sn 721 Nālakasuttaṃ
It 56 Moneyyasuttaṃ
Th 2 Mahākoṭṭhikattheragāthā
Th 501 Mahākaccāyanattheragāthā
Th 650 Khadiravaniyarevatattheragāthā
Th 582 Vaṅgantaputtaupasenattheragāthā
Ud 42 Nāgasuttaṃ
Th 49 Rāmaṇeyyakattheragāthā
Th 398 Mahākassapattheragāthā
It 40 Paṭisallānasuttaṃ
It 40 Paṭisallānasuttaṃ
S I 5 Araññasuttaṃ
M II 131 Bhaddekarattasuttaṃ
M II 131 Bhaddekarattasuttaṃ
Thī 177 Uttarātherīgāthā
S II 142 Pheṇapiṇḍūpamasuttaṃ
It 122 Lokasuttaṃ
It 122 Lokasuttaṃ
Th 700 Udāyittheragāthā
Th 701 Udāyittheragāthā
Th 1013 Sāriputtattheragāthā
S I 149 Katamodakatissasuttaṃ
S I 220 Dhajaggasuttaṃ
S I 111 Patirūpasuttaṃ
JN 122 Sumedhakathā
A II 331 Paṭhamaaparihānasuttaṃ
Sn 1062 Dhotakamāṇavapucchā
S I 52 Veṇḍusuttaṃ
Th 1276 Vaṅgīsattheragāthā
Th 334 Sumanattheragāthā
Thī 250 Puṇṇātherīgāthā
Thī 361 Subhākammāradhītutherīgāthā
Sn 192 Āḷavakasuttaṃ


  1. Sakka (Sakya) The Buddha’s clan name. [Back]
  2. Brahmā: he addresses the Buddha by the name of a deity. [Back]
  3. The Buddha’s contemporaries believed that people could be purified by bathing in sacred rivers. [Back]
  4. Māra: the Tempter, the Evil One. [Back]
  5. Brahmā: A high divinity in the ancient Indian pantheon [Back]